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  • Cobalt (Co) Metal & Cobalt Powder
    Physical Properties Targets, pieces, & powder Chemical Properties 99.8% to 99.99% Typical Applications This versatile metal has consolidated its position in traditional areas, such as superalloys, and has found greater use in some newer applications, such as in rechargeable batteries Alloys- Cobalt-based superalloys consume most of the produced cobalt. The temperature stability of these alloys makes them suitable for use in turbine blades for gas turbines and jet aircraft engines, though nickel-based single crystal alloys surpass them in this regard. Cobalt-based alloys are also corrosion and wear-resistant. Special cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys are used for prosthetic parts such as hip and knee replacements. Cobalt alloys are also used for dental prosthetics, where they are useful to avoid allergies to nickel. Some high speed steels also use cobalt to increase heat and wear-resistance. The special alloys of aluminium, nickel, cobalt and iron, known as Alnico, and of samarium and cobalt (samarium-cobalt magnet) are used in permanent magnets. Batteries- Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is widely used in Lithium ion battery electrodes. Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries also contain significant amounts of cobalt. Catalyst- Several cobalt compounds are used in chemical reactions as catalysts. Cobalt acetate is used for the production of terephthalic acid as well as dimethyl terephthalic acid, which are key compounds in the production of Polyethylene terephthalate. The steam reforming and hydrodesulfuration for the production of petroleum, which uses mixed cobalt molybdenum aluminium oxides as a catalyst, is another important application. Cobalt and its compounds, especially cobalt carboxylates (known as cobalt soaps), are good oxidation catalysts. They are used in paints, varnishes, and inks as drying agents through the oxidation of certain compounds. The same carboxylates are used to improve the adhesion of the steel to rubber in steel-belted radial tires. Pigments and coloring- Before the 19th century, the predominant use of cobalt was as pigment. Since the midage the production of smalt, a blue colored glass was known. Smalt is produced by melting a mixture of the roasted mineral smaltite, quartz and potassium carbonate, yielding a dark blue silicate glass which is grinded after the production. Smalt was widely used for the coloration of glass and as pigment for paintings. In 1780 Sven Rinman discovered cobalt green and in 1802 Louis Jacques Thénard discovered cobalt blue. The two colors cobalt blue, a cobalt aluminate, and cobalt green, a mixture of cobalt(II) oxide and zinc oxide, were used as pigments for paintings due to their superior stability. Cobalt has been used to color glass since the Bronze Age. Description A brittle, hard metal, resembling iron and nickel in appearance, cobalt has a magnetic permeability approximately two thirds that of iron. It is frequently obtained as a byproduct of nickel, silver...
  • Bismuth Trioxide (Bi2O3)
    Bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) is the prevalent commercial oxide of bismuth. It is widely used in the industry of Ceramics and Glasses, Rubbers, Plastics, Inks, and Paints, Medical and Pharmaceuticals, Analytical reagents, Varistor, Electronics. A precursor to the preparation of other compounds of bismuth, Bismuth trioxide is used for preparing bismuth salts and manufacturing fireproof paper as chemical analytic reagents. This bismuth oxide can be widely applied in inorganic synthesis, electronic ceramics, chemical reagents, etc., is mainly used for manufacturing ceramic dielectric capacitors and can also be used for manufacturing electronic ceramic elements such as piezoelectric ceramics and piezoresistors. Bismuth Trioxide has specialized uses in optical glass, flame-retardant paper, and, increasingly, in glaze formulations where it substitutes for lead oxides. In the last decade, bismuth trioxide has also become a key ingredient in flux formulations used by mineral analysts in fire assaying.
  • Antimony Pentoxide(Sb2O5)
    USES AND FORMULATIONS The largest use of antimony oxide is in a synergistic flame retardant system for plastics and textiles. Normal applications include upholstered chairs, rugs, television cabinets, business machine housings, electrical cable insulation, laminates, coatings, adhesives, circuit boards, electrical appliances, seat covers, car interiors, tape, aircraft interiors, fiberglass products, carpeting, etc. There are numerous other applications for antimony oxide that are discussed herein. Polymer formulations are generally developed by the user. Dispersion of the antimony oxide is extremely important to get the maximum effectiveness. The optimum amount of either chlorine or bromine must also be used. FLAME RETARDANT APPLICATIONS IN HALOGENATED POLYMERS No halogen addition is necessary in polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, chlorinated polyethylene (PE), chlorinated polyesters, neoprenes, chlorinated elastomers (i.e., chlorosulfonated polyethylene ). Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). - Rigid PVC. products (unplasticized) are essentially flame retarded due to their chlorine content. Plasticized PVC products contain flammable plasticizers and must be flame retarded. They contain a high enough chlorine content so that an additional halogen is usually not necessary, and in these cases 1 % to 10% antimony oxide by weight is used. If plasticizers are used that reduce the halogen content, the halogen content can be increased by using halogenated phosphate esters or chlorinated waxes. Polyethylene (PE). - Low-density polyethylene (LDPE). burns rapidly and must be flame retarded with as much as 8% to 16% antimony oxide and 10% to 30% of a halogenated paraffin wax or a halogenated aromatic or cycloaliphatic compound. Brominated aromatic bisimides are useful in PE used in electrical wire and cable applications. Unsaturated Polyesters. - Halogenated polyester resins are flame retarded with approximately 5% antimony oxide. FLAME RETARDANT APPLICATION FOR COATINGS AND PAINTS Paints - Paints can be made flame retardant by providing a halogen, usually chlorinated paraffin or rubber, and 10% to 25% antimony trioxide. Additionally antimony oxide is used as a color "fastener" in paint subject to ultraviolet radiation that tends to deteriorate colors. As a color fastener it is used in yellow striping on highways and in yellow paints for school buses. Paper - Antimony oxide and a suitable halogen are used to render paper flame retardant. Since antimony oxide is insoluble in water, it has an added advantage over other flame retardants. Textiles - Modacrylic fibers and halogenated polyesters are rendered flame retardant by using the antimony oxide- halogen synergistic system. Drapes, carpeting, padding, canvas and other textile goods are flame retarded using chlorinated paraffins and (or) polyvinyl chloride latex and approximately 7% antimony oxide. The halogenated compound and antimony oxide are applied by rolling, dipping, spraying, brushing, or p...
  • Indium Tin Oxide(In2O3/SnO2)Powder
    Indium tin oxide is one of the most widely used transparent conducting oxides because of its electrical conductivity and optical transparency, as well as the ease with which it can be deposited as a thin film. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is an optoelectronic material that is applied widely in both research and industry. ITO can be used for many applications, such as flat-panel displays, smart windows, polymer-based electronics, thin film photovoltaics, glass doors of supermarket freezers, and architectural windows. Moreover, ITO thin films for glass substrates can be helpful for glass windows to conserve energy. ITO green tapes are utilized for the production of lamps that are electroluminescent, functional, and fully flexible.[2] Also, ITO thin films are used primarily to serve as coatings that are anti-reflective and for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and electroluminescence, where the thin films are used as conducting, transparent electrodes. ITO is often used to make transparent conductive coating for displays such as liquid crystal displays, flat panel displays, plasma displays, touch panels, and electronic ink applications. Thin films of ITO are also used in organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, antistatic coatings and EMI shieldings. In organic light-emitting diodes, ITO is used as the anode (hole injection layer). ITO films deposited on windshields are used for defrosting aircraft windshields. The heat is generated by applying voltage across the film. ITO is also used for various optical coatings, most notably infrared-reflecting coatings (hot mirrors) for automotive, and sodium vapor lamp glasses. Other uses include gas sensors, antireflection coatings, electrowetting on dielectrics, and Bragg reflectors for VCSEL lasers. ITO is also used as the IR reflector for low-e window panes. ITO was also used as a sensor coating in the later Kodak DCS cameras, starting with the Kodak DCS 520, as a means of increasing blue channel response. ITO thin film strain gauges can operate at temperatures up to 1400 °C and can be used in harsh environments, such as gas turbines, jet engines, and rocket engines.
  • Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Grinding Beads
    Typical Applications of YSZ Media: • Paint Industry: For the high purity grinding of paints and creation of paint dispersions • Electronic Industry: Magnetic materials, piezoelectric materials, dielectric materials for high purity grinding where the media should not discolor the mix being ground or cause any impurity due to wearing of the media •  Food and Cosmetic Industry: It is used in food and cosmetic industry due to its lack of contamination to in the materials being ground • Pharmaceutical Industry: For high purity grinding and mixing in the Pharmaceutical industry due to its extremely low wear rate Applications for 0.8~1.0 mm Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Micro Milling Media These YSZ microbeads can used in milling and dispersion of following materials: Coating, paints, printing and inkjet inks Pigments and dyes Pharmaceuticals Food Electronic materials and components e.g. CMP slurry, ceramic capacitors, lithium iron phosphate battery Chemicals including Agrochemicals e.g. fungicides, insecticides Minerals e.g. TiO2, GCC, and Zircon Bio-tech (DNA & RNA isolation) Applications for 0.1 mm Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Micro Milling Media This product has been popularly used in bio-technology, DNA, RNA and protein extraction and isolation. -Used for bead based nucleic acid or protein extraction. -Adapted for use in protein and nucleic acid separation. -Suitable for downstream scientific studies utilizing sequencing and PCR, or associated techniques. This product is in stock for immediate shipment. Please order your 0.1 mm zirconia beads online or send your PO to marketing@urbanmines.com For bulk orders, please contact us for volume discount.
  • Lanthanum Oxide
    Lanthanum Oxide finds uses in: Optical glasses where it imparts improved alkali resistance La-Ce-Tb phosphors for fluorescent lamps Dielectric and conductive ceramics Barium titanate capacitors X-Ray intensifying screens Lanthanum metal production The key applications of Lanthanum Oxide nanoparticles are listed below: As a magnetic nanoparticle for magnetic data storage and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) In biosensors For phosphate removal in bio medical and water treatment (even for swimming pools and spas) applications In laser crystals and optics In nanowires, nanofibers, and in specific alloy and catalyst applications In piezoelectric materials to increase product piezoelectric coefficients and improve product energy conversion efficiency For the manufacture of high-refraction optical fibers, precision optical glasses, and other alloy materials In preparation of several perovskite nanostructures like lanthanum manganite and lanthanum chromite, for the cathode layer of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) For the preparation of organic chemical products catalysts, and in automobile exhaust catalysts To improve the burning rate of propellants In light-converting agricultural films In electrode materials and in light-emitting material (blue powder), hydrogen storage materials, and laser materials

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